Basic, the fresh new hill of your relationship BP which have Na intake ranged from the energy intake, suggesting you to definitely Na occurrence will get reflect the connection that have BP most useful than simply pure Na consumption does
There was a significant 3-way interaction between Na intake, energy, and obesity status for SBP (P=0.033); for DBP, the 3-way interaction was not significant, but there was a significant interaction between energy intake and obesity (P=0.005). In stratified models, the association of Na with SBP was stronger at lower energy intake (higher Na density) than at higher energy intake (lower Na density) in both nonobese (interaction of Na with energy; P<0.001) and obese (interaction of Na with energy; P=0.028); the association of Na and DBP by energy intakes was similar (interaction of Na with energy, P=0.005 nonobese; P=0.049 obese). On the control diet at 2300 mg Na intake in the nonobese, SBP was 4.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0, 8.5) higher at 2100 kcal compared with 3200 kcal (Figure 3A), and DBP was 3.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.7, 5.5) higher (Figure 3C). In obese at 2300 mg Na intake on the control diet, there were no differences in SBP (0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?3.8 to 4.9; Figure 3B) or DBP (1.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 4.5; Figure 3D) between 2100 and 3200 kcal. On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, there were no significant differences in SBP at 2100 versus 3200 kcal regardless of obesity status (2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 6.0 for nonobese and ?1.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?6.0 to 3.4 for obese). On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, DBP was higher at 2100 versus 3200 kcal in the nonobese (2.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.1–4.4), but not in the obese (?0.3 mm Hg (95% CI, ?3.2 to 2.6).
Figure 3. Interaction of absolute Na intake and energy intake on blood pressure at 3 energy levels stratified by obesity status, indicating 3 levels of Na density (L, I, and H), among normal and overweight (body mass index [BMI] <30 kg/m 2 , A and C) and obese (BMI?30 kg/m 2 , B and D) participants on the control diet. The vertical line is drawn at 2300 mg absolute Na intake. Error bars represent ±1 SE. Results from mixed-effects models of continuous Na and energy, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, cohort, diet type (DASH [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension] or control), clinical center, and carryover effects stratified by obesity status. DBP indicates diastolic blood pressure; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.
It studies are presented to determine whether or not the relationship anywhere between Na and BP may differ which have times consumption. Multiple key conclusions emerged. Next, due to the fact previously reported, the effect regarding Na reduction are attenuated throughout the mode from this new Dashboard eating plan in contrast to the fresh new control eating plan, indicating one aspects of eating plan also dictate the brand new BP response to changes in Na intake. 5,12,thirteen In addition to attenuating the BP a reaction to Na, brand new Dashboard eating plan including paid down BP, in line with research you to definitely aspects of eating plan, plus an increased consumption regarding potassium, individually down BP. 14 3rd, the fresh new connection from Na with time consumption to the BP proceeded when the latest analyses was indeed stratified because of the race, except for DBP certainly one of whites. Next, that have stratification by being obese standing, large differences in BP of the opportunity intake was indeed seen one of those who have been nonobese in contrast to overweight.
Whilst Dashboard–Na study managed Na density, and never natural Na intake, the original results of it demo was interpreted with regards to Na intake in the place of Na occurrence. The deficiency of revealing overall performance by Na thickness get reflect new lack of study to your opportunity consumption in many education. Testing of the dating out-of Na occurrence that have mortality when you look at the observational studies have given mixed efficiency. The research of Na density with death regarding the NHANES quickflirt ekÅŸi II follow-up studies (National Health insurance and Nourishment Test Survey) and you may of NHANES III advised an inverse relationship out-of Na and you may heart disease mortality, in the event considering Na when it comes to energy intake. fifteen,sixteen Throughout these studies, however, Na and energy intake were projected using one twenty-four-time recall, that’s not sufficient to guess one’s typical slimming down intake on account of large day-to-date type in both Na intake and effort consumption as well as their ratio. Then, times intake are implausibly low in each other degree. You’ll be able to your seen relationship anywhere between Na consumption and you can cardiovascular illnesses death can be said by the around-reporting prejudice, that is, if the overweight people declaration all the way down Na thickness and so are likely to be to pass away off cardiovascular disease, the observed matchmaking will get mirror the newest perception out of carrying excess fat in lieu of diet plan. The most recent evidence out-of a potential cohort investigation (n=716, 19-12 months realize-up) aligns towards the result of the modern study, that have advertised chance regarding aerobic occurrences two times as higher one of those on higher versus low quartile from Na density (22% as opposed to eleven%, respectively; P=0.005) considering seven-day restaurants info compiled at the baseline. 17