The new Kangbuk Samsung Health Data try an excellent cohort examination of Korean folks, old ?18 age, which underwent a thorough yearly or biennial health test in the Kangbuk Samsung Healthcare Full Healthcare Facilities inside Seoul and you may Suwon, Southern Korea. 12 Really examinees (>80%) are group of numerous organizations and you will local governmental organizations and their spouses. During the South Korea, the fresh Commercial Safety and health Legislation needs annual otherwise biennial fitness testing inspections of all of the personnel, free of charge.
Our very own investigation are restricted to Kangbuk Samsung Wellness Study professionals who undergone a comprehensive health test of , and you can offered informed agree to have linkage toward Medical insurance Comment and you can Assessment Solution databases (n=263 532; Shape step 1). When you look at the Korea, healthcare try prepared significantly less than a mandatory single?payer across the country insurance coverage system (Federal Medical health insurance) that collects all the details about medical attributes use within the whole Korean people below an extensive database work from the Health insurance Review and you may Investigations Services. 13
We excluded participants with missing data on BP or history of hypertension (n=1018), with history of malignancy (n=6255), with history of CVD (n=3440), or with a diagnosis of CVD (n=10 471) at baseline. Because some participants met >1 exclusion criterion, the final sample size included in the analysis was 244 837 participants (mean [SD] age, 39.0 [8.9] years; interquartile range, 32.2–43.7 years; and young adults aged <40 years of 60.7 %).
Written told consent try extracted from all the members. smore hile apk The research try approved by the Institutional Remark Board out-of Kangbuk Samsung Healthcare.
Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medical history, and family history of CVD were collected by standardized, self?administered questionnaires. 14 Smoking status was categorized as never, former, and current smoker. Alcohol intake was categorized as <20 and ?20 g/d, as applied in previous studies. 12 , 15 Education level was categorized as less than college and college education or more. Physical activity was assessed using the validated Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. 16 Participants were classified as inactive, minimally active, and health?enhancing physically active. Health?enhancing physically active was defined as physical activity that meets either of 2 criteria: (1) vigorous?intensity activity on ?3 days per week, accumulating ?1500 metabolic equivalent min/wk; or (2) 7 days of any combination of walking, moderate?intensity activities, or vigorous?intensity activities achieving at least 3000 metabolic equivalent min/wk. 16 Usual dietary intake was assessed using a 103?item, self?administered food frequency questionnaire designed and validated for use in Korea. 17 Daily intake of sodium was calculated by multiplying the frequency of consumption of each food by the portion size and sodium content of each food and summing across all relevant food items. 18 , 19
Height and weight were measured by trained nurses. Body mass index was calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). BP was measured using an automated oscillometric device (53000; Welch Allyn, New York, NY) by trained nurses while participants were in a sitting position, with the arm supported at the heart level after a 5?minute rest. We recoded 3 consecutive BP readings and used the average of the second and third readings in the analysis. BP levels were categorized according to the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guideline. 11 Participants without a history of hypertension were categorized as normal BP (< mm Hg), elevated BP (120–129/<80 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (130––89 mm Hg), and stage 2 hypertension (? mm Hg). Participants with a history of hypertension were categorized as treated and strictly controlled hypertension (< mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated and controlled hypertension (130––89 mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated but uncontrolled hypertension (? mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), and untreated hypertension (not using antihypertensive medications).